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Biography of Queen Elizabeth II

All You Need To Know About Queen Elizabeth II

Biography of Queen Elizabeth II : She was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states during her lifetime and 15 at the time of her death. Her reign of 70 years and 214 days was the longest of any British monarch and the longest verified reign of any female monarch in history.

The Queen was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.

Her father acceded to the throne in 1936 upon the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII, making her the heir presumptive. She was educated privately at home and began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married her husband, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, and their marriage lasted 73 years until his death in 2021. They had four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward.

When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth was 25 years old when she became queen of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, as well as Head of the Commonwealth. She reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes. The number of her realms varied over time as territories gained independence and some realms became republics.

As the Queen was served by more than 170 prime ministers across her realms.
Significant events included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, Diamond, and Platinum jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012, and 2022, respectively. Although she faced occasional republican sentiment and media criticism of her family, particularly after the breakdowns of her children’s marriages, her annus Horribilis in 1992, and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. Support for the monarchy in the United Kingdom remained consistently high throughout her lifetime, as did her personal popularity. She died on 8 September 2022 at Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire, at the age of 96, and was succeeded by her eldest child, King Charles III. Her state funeral was the first to be held in the United Kingdom since that of Winston Churchill in 1965.

Early life

The Queen was born on 21 April 1926,during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, later King George VI. Her mother, Elizabeth was the Duchess of York, later The Queen Mother.She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace,and was named Elizabeth after her mother; Alexandra after her paternal great-grandmother, and Mary after her paternal grandmother.

Her Reign

The Queen accended the throne immediately after the death of George VI. She chose to retain her name as her regnal title:thus she was called Elizabeth II, which offended many Scots, as she was the first Elizabeth to rule in Scotland. She was proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom. She and her husband moved into Buckingham Palace.

With the Queen’s accession, it seemed probable that the royal house would bear the Duke of Edinburgh’s name, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband’s surname on marriage. After many name suggestions,The British prime minister, Winston Churchill, and Queen Mary favoured the retention of the House of Windsor,so she issued a declaration on 9 April 1952 that Windsor would continue to be the name of the royal house. In 1960, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor was adopted for the Queen and husband male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles.

Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March 1953, the coronation went ahead as planned on 2 June, as Mary had requested before she died. The coronation ceremony was held in Westminster Abbey, with the exception of the anointing and communion, and was televised for the first time. On the queen’s instruction, her coronation gown was embroidered with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries.
In 1957, she made a state visit to the United States, where she addressed the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the Commonwealth. On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a parliamentary session.

Two years later, solely in her capacity as Queen of Canada, she revisited the United States and toured Canada.
The Queen gave birth to her third child, Prince Andrew, on 19 February 1960, which was the first birth to a reigning British monarch since 1857. Her fourth child, Prince Edward, was born on 10 March 1964.

Adding to performing traditional ceremonies, she also instituted new practices. Her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970. The Queen toured Yugoslavia in October 1972, becoming the first British monarch to visit a communist country.

In 1977, she marked the Silver Jubilee of her accession. Parties and events took place throughout the Commonwealth, many coinciding with her associated national and Commonwealth tours. The celebrations re-affirmed her popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess Margaret’s separation from her husband, Lord Snowdon. In 1978, she endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by Romania’s communist leader, Nicolae Ceaușescu, and his wife.

During the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony, six weeks before the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at Elizabeth from close range as she rode down The Mall, London, on her horse, But Police later discovered the shots were blanks. She was again, the subject of another attack while on a visit to Dunedin, New Zealand. Lewis, who was 17 years old, fired a shot with a rifle from the fifth floor of a building overlooking the parade, but missed.

In 2002, she marked her Golden Jubilee, the 50th anniversary of her accession. Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated on whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure. One million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London, and the enthusiasm shown for her by the public was greater than what many people had anticipated.
The queen’s 2012 Diamond Jubilee marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. She and her husband went for an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf. While touring Manchester as part of her Diamond celebrations, she made a surprise appearance at a wedding party at Manchester Town Hall, which then made international headlines.
Her Platinum Jubilee began on 6 February 2022, marking 70 years since she acceded to the throne after her father’s death. On the eve of the date, she held a reception at Sandringham House for pensioners, local Women’s Institute members and charity volunteers. In her accession day message, she renewed her commitment to a lifetime of public service, which she had originally made in 1947.

Later that month, Elizabeth had “mild cold-like symptoms” and tested positive for COVID-19, along with some staff and family members, And on 28 February, she was reported to have recovered and spent time with her family at Frogmore.

Beliefs, activities and interests

Elizabeth had a deep sense of religious and civic duty, and took her Coronation Oath seriously. Aside from her official religious role as Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, she worshipped with that church and also the national Church of Scotland. She demonstrated support for inter-faith relations and met with leaders of other churches and religions.

She was a patron of more than 600 organisations and charities. The Charities Aid Foundation estimated that Elizabeth helped raise over £1.4 billion for her patronages during her reign. Her main leisure interests included equestrianism and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis. Her lifelong love of corgis began in 1933 with Dookie, the first corgi owned by her family. Scenes of a relaxed, informal home life were occasionally witnessed; she and her family, from time to time, prepared a meal together and washed the dishes afterwards.

Titles and Honour

Elizabeth held many titles and honourary military positions throughout the Commonwealth, she was sovereign of many orders in her own countries, and received honours and awards from around the world. In each of her realms, she had a distinct title that follows a similar formula: Queen of Saint Lucia and of Her other Realms and Territories in Saint Lucia, Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories in Australia, etc. In the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, which are Crown Dependencies rather than separate realms, she was known as Duke of Normandy and Lord of Mann, respectively. Additional styles include Defender of the Faith and Duke of Lancaster.


The queen’s personal wealth was the subject of speculation for many years. In 1971, Jock Colville, her former private secretary and a director of her bank, Coutts, estimated her wealth at £2 million, equivalent to about £30 million in 2021. Also In 1993, Buckingham Palace called estimates of £100 million “grossly overstated”.

In 2002, she inherited an estate worth an estimated £70 million from her mother. In 2020, her personal wealth was estimated at £350 million, making her the 372nd richest person in the UK. She was number one on the list when it began in the Rich List of 1989, with a reported wealth of £5.2 billion: approximately £13.8 billion in today’s value, which included state assets that were not hers personally.

Her Death

On 8 September 2022, Buckingham Palace released a statement from the the Queen’s doctors about her health condition and they recommended she remain under medical supervision. And her immediate family rushed to Balmoral to be by her side. She died “peacefully” at the age of 96, with her death being announced to the public some hours later, setting in motion Operation London Bridge and, because she died in Scotland, Operation Unicorn. Queen was the first monarch to die in Scotland since James V in 1542. Her cause of death was recorded as “old age”.

On 12 September, her coffin was carried up the Royal Mile in a procession to St Giles’ Cathedral, where the Crown of Scotland was placed on it. Her coffin lay at rest at the cathedral for 24 hours, guarded by the Royal Company of Archers, during which about 33,000 people filed past the coffin. It was taken by air to London on 13 September.

On the next day, her coffin was taken in a military procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall, where Elizabeth lay in state for four days.

The coffin was guarded by members of both the Sovereign’s Bodyguard and the Household Division. An estimated 250,000 members of the public filed past the coffin, as did politicians and other public figures.

The third day, her children held a vigil around her coffin, and the next day the eight grandchildren did the same.
The queen’s state funeral was held at Westminster Abbey on 19 September, which marked the first time that a monarch’s funeral service had been held at the Abbey since George II in 1760. More than a million people lined the streets of central London, and the day was declared a holiday in several Commonwealth countries.

In Windsor, a final procession involving 1,000 military personnel took place which was witnessed by 97,000 people. Her fell pony, and two royal corgis, stood at the side of the procession.

After a Committal Service at St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, she was interred with her husband Philip in the King George VI Memorial Chapel later the same day in a private ceremony attended by her closest family members.

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