The basic education structure inherited from the missionaries and the British colonial government includes a six-year primary school and a four-year secondary school. The official age for enrollment of students is six.
It was not until the beginning of the educational reform in 1987 that ten years of elementary education constituted the first round of education.
All students who completed the tenth grade took the high school certificate exams organized by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC).
The Examination Committee was established by a decree in 1951 to hold all public examinations for the former British West African countries and Liberia.
The 1987 reform reduced the first round of education to 9 years, and grades 7 to 9 were designated as junior high schools (JSS).
Successful candidates are admitted to the four-year high school (SSS) system.
The reason for the reform was first expressed in the report of the Zobo Committee in the mid-1970s, which called for a new type of education compatible with national development.
Similar to the observations made in the Phelps-Stokes Report in 1923, the Zobo Committee advocated the introduction of more vocational, scientific, and agricultural courses at the JSS level.
Therefore, although general education is provided in the first six years of elementary education, some people think that students who participate in JSS should have the opportunity to try various practical courses.
Those who show a tendency to practice education will be encouraged to enter vocational and technical institutions, while others continue to study courses related to the traditional secondary education system.
The four-year SSS course is tested by the high school standardized test, which is also taken by WAEC.
Successful candidates will be considered for admission to higher education institutions to receive higher education in the professional field.
While some praised the government for its courage to implement reform policies, the new system was also criticized.
The major issue is that the national government expects local governments to give workshops and laboratories for the JHS system.
Critics worry that the financial burden of the community will increase, and they believe that children from wealthy communities will live better than children from poor areas.
However, the reality of the past 10 years has been that many wealthy parents sent their wards to private JSS institutions opened in wealthy communities.
The reason is that better-equipped private schools can better prepare children for entering the prestigious secondary schools that are now designated as part of the new SSS system.
On the one hand, it is observed that the establishment of private JSS is consistent with the privatization of the national economy that was characteristic of the 1980s.
On the other hand, critics believe that the educational trend favors the rich and widens the gap between the rich and the poor, because, in the end, better preparatory education is conducive to entry into the country’s universities.
The irony is that in some ways there are also arguments that those influential people covet a handful of government scholarships that are only awarded to very smart students.
However, opportunities for expanding education in Ghana still exist.
Higher vocational and technical education can be obtained through various polytechnics.
Nursing and teacher training is now exclusively offered to higher education candidates.
Professional training in accounting and management courses can also be obtained outside the university.
The compression of the second cycle of education brought about by reforms has greatly increased the number of university applicants.
In the past ten years, SSS graduates usually have to wait two years before being admitted to university courses.
Universities deal with serious bottlenecks by admitting more students than they normally admit.
The limited available space in the old facilities has led to an increase in class size and overcrowding in student dormitories, creating tensions between students, university administrators, and the government.
The Ghana University Teachers’ Association also complained about wages and working conditions.
Given the seriousness of the problem, it is not surprising that the school year is regularly interrupted due to strikes. Despite these concerns, Ghana has made great strides in providing schools over the past half-century.
This reality is reflected in the significant decline in the national adult illiteracy rate: 75% in 1960, 60% in 1970, 57% in 1980, 43% in 1990, and 30% in 1990. 2000. This the summary of our education system